Turkish mobile phones operate on a SIM-based GSM network. All GSM phones work in Turkey as long as you have a sim card installed.
If you want to use your own mobile phone, instead of buying one in Turkey, please keep in mind that you should get the phone registered with the government within the first 90 days of your visit to Turkey. You need to register your International Mobile Equipment Identities (IMEIs) with the Turkish Information Technologies and Communications Authority. You can do that if you bring your passport with your mobile phone to a mobile network agent. You should have the stamp in your passport showing the entrance date to the country.